Refractometric study on binary, ternary, and quaternary solutions made by water, methanol, ethanol, glycerol, D-glucose monohydrate (DGMH), sucrose, and sodium chloride at T = 293.15 K and atmospheric pressure


  • Fardad Koohyar Ton Duc Thang University
  • Javad Nasiri IA University, Amol Branch
  • Farhoush Kiani IAuniversity, Amol Branch



Refractive index, solution, water, glycerol, D-glucose monohydrate (DGMH), sucrose, sodium chloride.


The glycerol, D-glucose monohydrate (DGMH), sucrose, and sodium chloride are used in food industries and the measurement of properties for these components and their aqueous solutions can be important. In this research work, the refractive indices for binary solutions of (methanol + glycerol), (ethanol + glycerol), ternary solutions of (water + glycerol + DGMH), (water + glycerol + sucrose), (water + sucrose + DGMH), (water + sucrose + ethanol), (water + ethanol + DGMH), (water + NaCl + DGMH), (water + methanol + NaCl), (water + ethanol + NaCl), (water + NaCl + glycerol), (water + sucrose + NaCl), and quaternary solutions of (water + ethanol + sucrose + DGMH), (water + ethanol + sucrose + glycerol), (water + NaCl + sucrose + glycerol) were measured in wide range of mole fractions at T = 293.15 K and atmospheric pressure. For binary solutions of this study, the changes of refractive index on mixing, ∆nD, were calculated in each mole fraction at T = 293.15 K. Also, the refractive index of binary solutions was fitted by a semi-empirical equation. The constant of this equation, Kr, was represented by Koohyar et al. in 2011. This constant can be used to investigate power of interactions between solute and solvent molecules. For ternary and quaternary solutions of this study, a semi-empirical equation was used to determine refractive indices at given temperature. The comparison between calculated and experimental refractive indices shows that there is a good agreement between them especially in lower molal concentrations.    


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