Paired Electrochemical Processes: Overview, Systematization, Selection Criteria, Design Strategies, and Projection


  • Jorge G. Ibanez Universidad Iberoamericana
  • Bernardo A. Frontana-Uribe Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEMex-UNAM
  • Rubén Vasquez-Medrano Universidad Iberoamericana



Combined processes, Coupled processes, Electrochemistry, Paired processes, Simultaneous processes, Linear processes, Convergent processes, Divergent processes


In most commercial electrochemical processes, only one of the two sides of the cell produces a desirable reaction, whereas the complementary reaction at the other side simply avoids interference with the target process and/or offers fast kinetics as not to limit it. An overview of several possible paired reaction schemes and their advantages is given, accompanied with specific thermodynamic and kinetic selection criteria, cell and reaction design strategies, and examples from the organic, inorganic, and environmental areas. The unnecessary nomenclature dispersion in this field (e.g., combined, concurrent, conjugate, convergent, coupled, divergent, dual, duet, linear, paired, parallel, simultaneous and synchronous electrochemical processes) is revised and a simple, consistent classification, as well as a homogeneous schematization system, is proposed.


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Author Biographies

Jorge G. Ibanez, Universidad Iberoamericana

Depto. Ing. y C. Químicas

Rubén Vasquez-Medrano, Universidad Iberoamericana

Depto. Ing. y C. Químicas






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